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Looking for quick answers to general queries about our industry and business.
Browse below for detailed information on common questions and queries.
Kapas is raw cotton or seed cotton
Cotton fibre separated from seed cotton is called lint.
FP bales are full pressed bales with standard weight of 170 kgs.
Ginning is process, which separates cotton fibres from cottonseed.
Lint cotton separated from cottonseed is pressed in the form of full pressed bales with standard weight of 170 kgs.
Out-turn is percentage of lint obtained out of one quintal of kapas (seed cotton), after processing.
APMC means Agricultural Produce Market Committees constituted under APMC Act of various State Governments.
Cowdy is immature/damaged/infected bolls of kapas, which is separated at the time of cleaning of seed cotton either through kapas cleaner or by way of hand grading.
One candy is 3.56 quintals of lint cotton. It is unit for sale of cotton in India in most of the States.
In India, cotton is grown in 9 major cotton growing States viz. Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan in Northern zone, Gujarat, Maharashtra and MP in Central zone and Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in Southern zone. Besides, cotton is also grown in Orissa.
Gujarat is the leading cotton growing State followed by Maharashtra.
Maharashtra has the largest area under cotton cultivation followed by Gujarat.
The average productivity of cotton in the country is 526 kgs per hectare vis-à-vis world average of 764 kgs per hectare during 2008-09.
In India nearly 60 per cent area under cotton cultivation is rainfed.
Cotton productivity has been highest in Karnataka at 670 kgs, in Gujarat at 633 kgs per hectare in 2008-09.
In irrigated areas of Northern zone cotton plantings is from mid-April till last week of May. In Central zone and Southern zones planting is taken up in June-July depending on onset of monsoon and continue till August. In Tamil Nadu (Southern zone) planting for summer crop is taken up in Jan/Feb and for winter in June-July.aa
Harvesting period is mainly from October to February. However, zone-wise harvesting period is as per details given below:
Northern zone: September-December,
Central zone: October to February,
Southern zone: October to February
Summer crop in Tamil Nadu & Karnataka : May to July
India has the advantage of growing all species of cotton i.e. from short staple 20mm & below, medium staple (20.5 to 24.5mm), medium long (25.0 to 27.0mm), long (27.5 to 32.0mm) and extra long staple cottons (32.5mm and above).
India produce large number of varieties and hybrids, number of varieties in cultivation exceeds seventy-five. However, 98 per cent of the production is contributed by about 25 varieties.
Bt cotton is one such insect resistant cotton with gene derived from a soil bacterium known Bacillus thuringiensis through genetic engineering. Bt confers high level of tolerance to the American bollworm Heliothis Armigera infestations.
Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) under the Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of India is releasing the Bt varieties for commercial cultivation.
Cotton Advisory Board, the apex body under the Chairmanship of Textile Commissioner is estimating cotton production every year in the country.
MSP means Minimum Support Price.
Government of India on recommendation from Commission on Agricultural Costs Prices is fixing the MSP every year. Till 2007-08, the MSPs had been fixed for basic two varieties i.e. F414/H-777/J-34 and H-4/H-10. From cotton season 2008-09, Government of India has been fixing MSPs based on two basic staple groups viz., medium staple group with staple length 24.5 to 25.5mm and Long staple with staple length 29.5 to 30.5mm.
Nearly 85 to 90 per cent cotton of total availability is used by Indian textile mills. During 2008-09, the domestic cotton consumption has been estimated at 230 lakh bales.
During 2007-08, India exported a record quantity of about 85 lakh bales. During current cotton season, CAB has estimated export of 50 lakh bales from the country.
Over the years imports of cotton into the country are only against short supply of Extra Long staple cottons. During 2008-09, cotton imports into the country are estimated at 7 lakh bales.
CCI makes purchases in all major cotton growing States through a network of about 315 procurement centres.
CCI procure cotton in the regulated APMCs in all the cotton growing States in the presence of APMC officials.
Contract Farming is Integrated Cotton Cultivation, which brings all stakeholders of cotton on one platform.
Contract Farming helps cotton growers in increasing their yields through reduction in cost of cultivation and at the same time assuring supply of quality cotton to the textile mills.
FLD means Front Line Demonstrations which ensure transfer of improved production and protection technology from research to farm level under Mini Mission II of the TMC.
TMC means Technology Mission on Cotton launched by Government of India in February 2000 to improve production, productivity and quality of cotton.
Mini Missions are the components of TMC. The details of various Mini Missions are available on website.
TUF is Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme effective from 1-4-1999.
International Cotton Advisory Committee is the intergovernmental forum for matters related to cotton.
International price mechanism available in the world today is the Duel Index system published by Cotlook on daily basis applies for reflecting nearby and distant offering rates, which are devised on average price for long staple type of cotton and for short staple type of cotton in the form of Index A and Index B.
Cotlook A Index is the average of the cheapest five of the eligible growths listed in the category. The quality description of the Cotlook A index is Middling 1-3/32″. The Cotlook Index is quoted in US Cents per lb and represents C/F Far Eastern values.